1000 Korean words for everyday use – Basic vocabulary from K-dramas #3

Welcome back. This is the 3rd post in the series of 1000 Korean words for everyday use by analyzing the word frequency of more than 1,000 episodes of Korean dramas.

Today, let’s explore the meaning and context of 5 key Korean words “되다, 안, 주다, 가다, 없다” with sample sentences.
Click the play button below to listen to all the words and sample sentences in this post.

 

Basic Korean words : 되다, 안, 주다, 가다, 없다

 

11. 되다 [doe-da] – to be, to become

– 되다 [doe-da] means “to be” or “to become”. It is a versatile verb used to describe a state of being or a process of change. It can be used to indicate a result, transformation or completion.

Example sentences:

이렇게 되었어요. It turned out like this.

 

12. 안 [an] – not, never, no / inside, in

– 안 [an] has a double meaning. It serves as a negation, meaning “not”, “never” or “no”. It also means “inside” or “in”.

Example sentences:

안 좋아요. It’s not good.
안으로 들어가세요. Go inside.

 

13. 주다 [ju-da] – to give

– 주다 [ju-da] is an action verb used when giving something to someone. When speaking politely, use 드리다 [deu-ri-da].

Example sentences:

그럼 이것 좀 주세요. Then please give me this.
도와드릴게요. I will help you.

 

14. 가다 [ga-da] – to go

– 가다 [ga-da] means “to go”. It’s used to describe the action of moving from one place to another.

Example sentences:

어디로 가나요? Where are you going?

 

15. 없다 [eop-tta] – not to have, to be absent

– 없다 [eop-tta] means “not to have” or “to be absent”. It’s used to indicate the absence or non-existence of something.

Example sentences:

여기에 없어요. It’s not here.

 

Grammar & Study Resources

*Tense

*Present tense : Adjective/verb stem + ~아/어/해요
*Past tense : Adjective/verb stem + ~았/었/했어요
*Future tense : Adjective/verb stem + ~(으)ㄹ 거예요 / ~ㄹ 게요/ ~겠어요
The basic way to get the verb/adjective stem is to remove 다 from the verb/adjective.
If there is a vowel ㅏ or ㅗ on the final syllable of the adjective/verb stem, 아요(present tense), 았어요(past tense), 을 거예요(future tense) is used.
If there is a vowel other than ㅏ or ㅗ on the final syllable of the adjective/verb, 어요(present tense), 었어요(past tense), ㄹ 거예요(future tense) is used.
Also, if there is 하다 in the adjective/verb, 하다 changes to 해요(present tense), 했어요(past tense), 할 거예요(future tense).

Below you can see the conjugation of 되다, 주다, 가다, 없다 by tenses.

Present tense Past tense Future tense
되다 되어요(=돼요) 되었어요(=됐어요) 될 거예요
주다 주어요(=줘요) 주었어요(=줬어요) 줄 거예요
가다 가요 갔어요 갈 거예요
없다 없어요 없어요 없을 거예요

*Speech levels

The three most commonly used Korean speech levels are 합쇼체 (formal polite), 해요체 (informal polite) and 해체 (informal plain).
*The formal polite style : Adjective/verb stem + ~(스)ㅂ니다
~(스)ㅂ니다 is used more in formal or public situations including the military, news, reporting presentations, meetings and lectures. It’s mainly used to address large gatherings or people you don’t know personally.
*The informal polite style : Adjective/verb stem + ~아/어/해요
~아/어/해요 is most commonly used in everyday life. Compared to the formal polite style, the informal polite style is softer and less formal, so it is mainly used among family members, friends, shopkeepers and other close acquaintances.
*The informal plain style : Adjective/verb stem + ~아/어/해
As for the informal plain style ~아/어/해, it is mainly used among friends from superiors to people of lower rank and among family members.

Below you can see the conjugation of 되다, 주다, 가다, 없다 by speech levels.

Formal polite Informal polite Informal plain
되다 됩니다 되어요(=돼요)
주다 줍니다 주어요(=줘요)
가다 갑니다 가요
없다 없습니다 없어요 없어

 

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